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叉车用发动机的配套要求

来源:https://www.jnhgjx.net/ 日期:2023-08-15 发布人:

叉车使用地区广泛,天气差异甚大,工作环境恶劣,灰尘大,工况经常变化,负荷较重。因此,叉车发动朵应具有良好的动力性与燃油经济性的工作可靠性,长的使用寿命,好的冷启动性能和易于维修保养等。同时,还要求结构紧凑,体积小,符合标准法规的坏保指标。通常,一台好的叉车发动机应具有下列基本特性:

Forklifts are widely used in various regions, with significant differences in weather conditions, harsh working environments, high levels of dust, frequent changes in operating conditions, and heavy loads. Therefore, the forklift engine should have good power and fuel economy, work reliability, long service life, good cold start performance, and easy maintenance. At the same time, it is also required to have a compact structure, small size, and meet the standards and regulations for damage protection indicators. Usually, a good forklift engine should have the following basic characteristics:
(1)能适应连续持久的工作和承受较负荷,标定功率为小时功率。叉车汽油机应装有限速器。
(1) Can adapt to continuous and long-lasting work and withstand heavy loads, with a rated power of hourly power. Forklift gasoline engines should be equipped with limiters.
(2)叉车发动机在工作时经常受到较大冲击和较强的振动,因而机体和附件应有足够的刚度和强度,且安装固定多采用三点式支承。
(2) Forklift engines are often subjected to significant impacts and strong vibrations during operation, so the body and accessories should have sufficient stiffness and strength, and installation and fixation often use three-point supports.
(3)为保证能在急变化的负荷状态下工作,一般宜采用全程式调速器,其瞬时调速率应小于12%,稳定调速率小于8%。
(3) To ensure that it can work under rapidly changing load conditions, it is generally advisable to use a full program governor, with an instantaneous speed regulation rate of less than 12% and a stable speed regulation rate of less than 8%.
(4)为适应港口、码头作业环境,要求发动机有较大的扭矩适应性,通常扭矩储备系数应大于12%(还变矩器的除外)。
(4) In order to adapt to the working environment of ports and docks, it is required that the engine has a large torque adaptability, and usually the torque reserve coefficient should be greater than 12% (excluding torque converters).
(5)为适应液压泵和辅助设备的需要,发动机应有辅助功率输出状置。对于中小吨位的叉车,液压泵应直接安装在发动机上,其辅助输出功率要求为总功率的50%—100%。
(5) To meet the needs of hydraulic pumps and auxiliary equipment, the engine should have an auxiliary power output configuration. For small and medium-sized forklifts, the hydraulic pump should be directly installed on the engine, with an auxiliary output power requirement of 50-100% of the total power.
(6)叉车常在倾斜的地面上作业,要求发动要能在前后或左右倾斜状态下正常工作。通常要求发动性能在纵倾20o、横倾15o状态下工作。
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(6) Forklifts often operate on sloping ground, requiring them to be able to operate normally in a forward or backward or left or right tilting state. Usually, the engine performance is required to operate at a pitch of 20o and a roll of 15o.
(7)叉车常在空气含尘量较多的环境作业。要求有率的空气滤清器,加油口,通气口和管接头处都应有防尘密封。
(7) Forklifts often operate in environments with high levels of dust in the air. High efficiency air filters are required, and dust seals should be installed at the fuel filler, vent, and pipe joints.
(8)为适应-40oC—+45oC多种天气环境下工作,对燃油、润滑油、润滑脂、冷却液、电瓶等有特殊要求,其相关系统要作改装。严冷地区要解决冷启动题目,势带地区要有防过热装置。
(8) In order to adapt to working in various weather environments ranging from -40oC to+45oC, there are special requirements for fuel, lubricating oil, grease, coolant, batteries, etc., and their related systems need to be modified. Cold start problems should be solved in severe cold areas, and anti overheating devices should be installed in potential areas.
(9)为适应高原地区工作需要,应设置增压器以补偿高原功率的降低,要求在海拔1000—2000m甚3000m地区作业而不降低功率。
(9) To meet the needs of work in plateau areas, a turbocharger should be installed to compensate for the decrease in plateau power. It is required to work in areas with an altitude of 1000-2000m or even 3000m without reducing power.
(10)对在坑道、船舱等环境作业的叉车,应有废气净化装置;对有较大涉水深度工作的叉车其电气备等要有密封保护;在有煤气的环境作业,需有特殊的防爆设施。
(10) Forklifts operating in tunnels, cabins, and other environments should have exhaust gas purification devices; For forklifts that work with significant wading depth, their electrical equipment should be sealed and protected; Special explosion-proof facilities are required for operations in environments with gas.
(11)要有高的可靠性和长的使用寿命。对新开发的叉车发动机目标值应为:柴油机故障期大于800h。次大修期6000—10000h;汽油机的目标值参照汽车用发动机的要求。
(11) It should have high reliability and long service life. The target value for the newly developed forklift engine should be: the first failure period of the diesel engine is greater than 800 hours. The first major overhaul period is 6000 to 10000 hours; The target values of gasoline engines refer to the requirements of automotive engines.
(12)叉车发动机的废气排放、烟度、噪声等指标应达到标准或行业标准的规定并尽快与国际标准接轨。
(12) The environmental indicators such as exhaust emissions, smoke, and noise of forklift engines should meet national or industry standards and be in line with international standards as soon as possible.
(13)发动机的体积功率比,燃油和机油消耗率,转速储备系数、低工作稳定思考速以及机械振动技术性能指标应符合叉车的配套要求。
(13) The volumetric power ratio, fuel and oil consumption rate, speed reserve coefficient, minimum stable operating speed, and mechanical vibration technical performance indicators of the engine should meet the supporting requirements of the forklift.
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