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叉车的种类特点以及车型配置选择

来源:https://www.jnhgjx.net/ 日期:2024-01-25 发布人:

叉车,作为现代物流运输的重要搬运工具,是成件托盘货物进行装卸、堆垛和短距离运输、重物搬运作业的各种轮式搬运车辆。广泛应用于港口、车站、机场、货场、工厂车间、仓库、流通中心和配送中心等,并可进入船舱、车厢和集装箱内进行托盘货物的装卸、搬运作业,是托盘运输、集装箱运输中必不可少的设备。

Forklifts, as important handling tools in modern logistics transportation, are various wheeled handling vehicles used for loading and unloading, stacking, short distance transportation, and heavy object handling of palletized goods. Widely used in ports, stations, airports, freight yards, factory workshops, warehouses, circulation centers, and distribution centers, and can enter ship cabins, carriages, and containers for loading, unloading, and handling of palletized goods, it is an essential equipment in pallet transportation and container transportation.

目前市场上可供选择的叉车众多,车型复杂,加之叉车产品本身技术特点非常,因此叉车车型的选择与供应商的选择等是很多企业经常面临的问题为帮助物流等企业合理的选购叉车,本文着重从叉车车型选择、选择、性能评判标准等方面进行介绍。

At present, there are many forklift brands available for selection in the market, with complex models. In addition, forklift products themselves have very professional technical characteristics. Therefore, the selection of forklift models and suppliers is a common problem faced by many enterprises. To help logistics and other enterprises choose forklifts reasonably, this article focuses on introducing forklift model selection, brand selection, performance evaluation standards, and other aspects.

利用叉车可以实现装卸、搬运作业机械化,减轻劳动强度,节约大量劳动力,提高工作效率,缩短了装卸、搬运、准码的作业时间,加速了物资、车辆周转,很大程度上提高了仓库的利用率,促进库房向多层货架和高架仓库发展,同时减少货物破损,提高了作业的程度。

Forklifts can achieve mechanization of loading, unloading, and handling operations, reduce labor intensity, save a large amount of labor, improve work efficiency, shorten the operation time of loading, unloading, and handling, accelerate the turnover of materials and vehicles, greatly improve warehouse utilization, promote the development of warehouses towards multi-layer shelves and elevated warehouses, reduce goods damage, and improve the safety level of operations.

一、叉车通常可以分为三大类:电动叉车、仓储叉车和内燃叉车。

1、 Forklifts can usually be divided into three categories: electric forklifts, storage forklifts, and internal combustion forklifts.

1.电动叉车

1. Electric forklift

以电动机为动力,蓄电池为能源。承载能力1.0~4.8吨,作业通道宽度一般为3.5~5.0米。由于没有污染、噪音小,因此广泛应用于对环境要求较高的工况,如医药、食品等行业。由于每个电池一般在工作约8小时后需要充电,因此对于多班制的工况需要配备备用电池,且在工作场所应有专门的充电处。

Powered by an electric motor and powered by a battery. The carrying capacity is 1.0-4.8 tons, and the width of the working passage is generally 3.5-5.0 meters. Due to its lack of pollution and low noise, it is widely used in industries with high environmental requirements, such as pharmaceuticals and food. Due to the fact that each battery usually needs to be charged after about 8 hours of operation, backup batteries need to be equipped for multi shift working conditions, and there should be a dedicated charging point in the workplace.

2.仓储叉车

2. Storage Forklift

仓储叉车主要是为仓库内货物搬运而设计的叉车。除了少数仓储叉车(如手动托盘叉车)是采用人力驱动的,其他都是以电动机驱动的,因其车体紧凑、移动灵活、自重轻和性能好而在仓储业得到普遍应用。在多班作业时,电机驱动的仓储叉车需要有备用电池,且在工作场所应有专门的充电处。

Warehouse forklifts are mainly designed for handling goods in warehouses. Except for a few warehouse forklifts (such as manual pallet forklifts) that are manually driven, others are all electric motor driven and widely used in the warehousing industry due to their compact body, flexible movement, light weight, and good environmental performance. When working in multiple shifts, electric motor driven storage forklifts need to have backup batteries and there should be a dedicated charging point in the workplace.

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(1)电动托盘搬运叉车

(1) Electric pallet handling forklift

承载能力1.6~3.0吨,作业通道宽度一般为2.3~2.8米,货叉提升高度一般在210mm左右,主要用于仓库内的水平搬运及货物装卸。一般有步行式和站驾式两种操作方式,可根据效率要求选择。

The carrying capacity is 1.6-3.0 tons, the width of the working passage is generally 2.3-2.8 meters, and the lifting height of the cargo fork is generally around 210mm. It is mainly used for horizontal handling and cargo loading and unloading in the warehouse. There are generally two operating modes: walking and standing driving, which can be selected according to efficiency requirements.

(2)电动托盘堆垛叉车

(2) Electric pallet stacker forklift

承载能力为1.0~1.6吨,作业通道宽度一般为2.3~2.8米,在结构上比电动托盘搬运叉车多了门架,货叉提升高度一般在4.8米内,主要用于仓库内的货物堆垛及装卸。

The carrying capacity is 1.0-1.6 tons, and the width of the working passage is generally 2.3-2.8 meters. In terms of structure, it has an additional gantry compared to electric pallet handling forklifts, and the lifting height of the forks is generally within 4.8 meters. It is mainly used for stacking and loading and unloading goods in the warehouse.

(3)前移式叉车

(3) Forward moving forklift

承载能力1.0~2.5吨,门架可以整体前移或缩回,缩回时作业通道宽度一般为2.7~3.2米,提升高度可达11米左右,常用于仓库内中等高度的堆垛、取货作业。

The load-bearing capacity is 1.0-2.5 tons, and the gantry can be moved forward or retracted as a whole. When retracted, the width of the working passage is generally 2.7-3.2 meters, and the lifting height can reach up to about 11 meters. It is commonly used for stacking and picking up goods at medium and equal heights in warehouses.

(4)电动拣选叉车

(4) Electric Picking Forklift

在某些工况下(如的配送中心),不需要整托盘出货,而是按照订单拣选多种品种的货物组成一个托盘,此环节称为拣选。按照拣选货物的高度,电动拣选叉车可分为低位拣选叉车(2.5米内)和中高位拣选叉车(可达10米)。

In certain working conditions (such as supermarket distribution centers), it is not necessary to ship the entire pallet, but to select multiple varieties of goods according to the order to form a pallet, which is called picking. According to the height of the picked goods, electric picking forklifts can be divided into low level picking forklifts (within 2.5 meters) and medium high level picking forklifts (up to 10 meters).

承载能力2.0~2.5吨(低位)、1.0~1.2吨(中高位,带驾驶室提升)。

The bearing capacity is 2.0-2.5 tons (low position) and 1.0-1.2 tons (medium high position, with cab lift).

(5)低位驾驶三向堆垛叉车

(5) Low position driving three way stacking forklift

通常配备一个三向堆垛头,叉车不需要转向,货叉旋转就可以实现两侧的货物堆垛和取货,通道宽度1.5~2.0米,提升高度可达12米。叉车的驾驶室始终在地面不能提升,考虑到操作视野的限制,主要用于提升高度低于6米的工况。

Usually equipped with a three-way stacking head, forklifts do not need to turn, and the forks can rotate to stack and pick up goods on both sides. The aisle width is 1.5-2.0 meters, and the lifting height can reach 12 meters. The cab of the forklift is always on the ground and cannot be lifted. Considering the limitations of the operating field of view, it is mainly used for lifting working conditions with a height of less than 6 meters.

(6)高位驾驶三向堆垛叉车

(6) High position driving three way stacking forklift

与低位驾驶三向堆垛叉车类似,高位驾驶三向堆垛叉车也配有一个三向堆垛头,通道宽度1.5~2.0米,提升高度可达14.5米。其驾驶室可以提升,驾驶员可以清楚地观察到任何高度的货物,也可以进行拣选作业。高位驾驶三向堆垛叉车在效率和各种性能都优于低位驾驶三向堆垛叉车,因此该车型已经逐步替代低位驾驶三向堆垛叉车。

Similar to the low position driving three way stacking forklift, the high position driving three way stacking forklift is also equipped with a three way stacking head, with a channel width of 1.5-2.0 meters and a lifting height of up to 14.5 meters. The cab can be raised, and the driver can clearly observe goods at any height, and can also perform picking operations. High position driving three way stacking forklifts have better efficiency and various performance than low position driving three way stacking forklifts, so this model has gradually replaced low position driving three way stacking forklifts.

(7)电动牵引车

(7) Electric tractor

牵引车采用电动机驱动,利用其牵引能力(3.0~25吨),后面拉动几个装载货物的小车。经常用于车间内或车间之间大批货物的运输,如汽车制造业仓库向装配线的运输、机场的行李运输。

The tractor is driven by an electric motor and utilizes its traction capacity (3.0-25 tons) to pull several small carts loaded with goods from behind. Often used for the transportation of large quantities of goods within or between workshops, such as transportation from automotive manufacturing warehouses to assembly lines, and luggage transportation at airports.

3.内燃叉车

3. Internal combustion forklift

内燃叉车又分为普通内燃叉车、重型叉车、集装箱叉车和侧面叉车。一般采用柴油、汽油、液化石油气或天然气发动机作为动力,承载能力较大,一般均可承载5吨以上的重量,考虑到尾气排放和噪音问题,通常用在室外对尾气排放和噪音没有特殊要求的场所。由于燃料补充方便,因此可实现长时间的连续作业,而且能胜任在恶劣的环境下工作。

Internal combustion forklifts are further divided into ordinary internal combustion forklifts, heavy-duty forklifts, container forklifts, and side forklifts. Generally, diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, or natural gas engines are used as power sources, with a large load-bearing capacity and can generally carry a weight of more than 5 tons. Considering exhaust emissions and noise issues, they are usually used outdoors in places where there are no special requirements for exhaust emissions and noise. Due to the convenience of fuel replenishment, it can achieve long-term continuous operation and is capable of working in harsh environments.

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